Japanese Journal of Farm Work Research

» Vol. 51 (2016) | Vol. 50 (2015)


Vol. 51 (2016), No. 4

Released: June 01, 2017

  • Research Paper
  • Studies on a Zig-zag Method of Planting using a Japanese-made Potato Planter
    Takuo Kokuryu, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Yukinori Shibuya, Katsufumi Wakabayashi
    Abstract: We developed a method of zig-zag planting of potato using commercial Japanese-made planters and examined its accuracy. Also, we cultivated potatoes in a field by zig-zag planting using improved zig-zag planters and an improved rotary hiller. The new commercial Japanese-made planter uses a newly developed blade to apportion seed potatoes in a zig-zag pattern. The device is placed below the seed-feeder of a commercial potato planter. We also improved the furrow-opener, press-roller, soil-coverer, and their attachments. With our semi-automatic zig-zag potato planter, seed potatoes are apportioned by using the potato's own weight; with our automatic planter this is done through connection to a drive wheel. The tine position on the commercial rotary hiller used was changed to avoid injury to seed potatoes just ridged after planting. The distance between fertilizer rows in zig-zag planting is 660 mm-shorter than in conventional planting (750 mm). Seed potatoes are planted on either side of the fertilizer row at 150-mm spacings. Just after planting, the soil is earthed-up at 1500-mm intervals, which include two fertilizer and four planting rows. Field experiments showed that both semi-automatic and automatic planters enabled zig-zag planting at the same regular working speed (3-4 km/h) as with a commercial planter. Planting accuracy with the automatic planter was comparable to that of conventional planters, but that with the semi-automatic planter was less than with conventional ones. In zig-zag planting, both number of tubers per plant and thus per-area yield of potatoes weighing 60 g or more were greater than with the conventional method. However, after a certain point of increase in tuber number per plant, potato size and weight tended to decrease. In addition, earthing-up with a rotary hiller had a problem whereby the tines of the hiller touched the seed potatoes, causing them to green.
    Verification of the Relationship between Boom Height and Application Unevenness when using a Riding Vehicle for Crop Management
    Tomomichi Mizukami, Takanobu Yoshida, Sumihiko Miyahara
    Abstract: Diseases and pests need to be controlled to prevent damage to agricultural crops and achieve a stable supply of food. It is important to control spraying of agricultural chemicals that aid in the prevention of diseases and pests. Therefore, the use of riding vehicles for crop management is required to ensure adequate and even spraying. Hence, the relationship between the boom height of the sprayer and even application of the pesticide was studied. The following results were obtained from a riding obstacle test. We determined that the IQR (inter quartile range) increased 351% for a water distribution test and the IQR increased 20% for an application test. Additionally, we show the relationship between boom heights and application using a gamma distribution of a generalized linear model based on a wind tunnel test. The study indicated that a lack of uniformity of the boom height created uneven application when using riding vehicles for crop management. We concluded that uniformity of boom height acts to reduce uneven application.


Vol. 51 (2016), No. 3

Released: March 01, 2017

  • Original Paper
  • Effects of Flower Thinning, Timing of Shoot Pinching and Girdling on Berry Enlargement and Quality of ‘Fujiminori’ Grapes
    Kazunori Ishikawa, Tadashi Baba, Hiroyuki Fujisawa, Takashi Shinohara, Tatsuya Seki, Masami Yamaguchi
    Abstract: The effects of early shoot pinching and girdling on secondary scaffold branches at 13 or 31 days after full bloom on the berry enlargement and the quality of ‘Fujiminori’ grape clusters which flowers tinned from different positions. The girdling treatment at 13 DAFB promoted the berry elongation of clusters which flowers thinned from either positions, thus increased the cluster weight. Moreover, the girdling treatment at 31 DAFB increased the sugar content. Conversely, no effects of the timing of the shoot pinching treatments on the berry enlargement. These results indicated that the girdling treatments at around two weeks after full bloom enlarged berries in either clusters which flowers tinned from different positions and so may lead to the consistent production of large-sized berries in ‘Fujiminori’ grape.
  • Research Paper
  • Tillage on Sloping Pastures
    Toshihiko Ibuki, Koichi Amaha, Takeshi Shibuya, Tamaki Kida, Noritoshi Sumida, Hidehiko Inoue, Yoshiyuki Abe, Yoichiro Kojima, Seiji Nakao, Toshiro Ikeda, Masahito Kuroda, Yasuko Togamura
    Abstract: Pasture renovation is known to be able to limit radioactive cesium absorption by grass. However, on sloping pastures, the machine tilling that is necessary for pasture renovation is often difficult. To address this problem, we selected a radio-controlled power tractor with a 49.3 kW engine that achieves high traction on sloping areas due to a crawler-type running device, and we developed an experimental rotary tiller of 1.6 m in working width that can be attached to the tractor. To determine this tractor-tiller combination’s tillage performance on sloping pasture, we conducted the tilling in three directions: along the contour line, up the slope, and down the slope on 15° and 25° sloping pastures. We measured the crawler slippage, the number of engine revolutions, and the soil pulverization. The results revealed that under tilling conditions at the working speed of approximately 0.45 m/s and a tilling depth of 6–9 cm, regardless of the traveling direction, the engine output power was sufficient, and no tractor instability due to crawler slippage was observed. Our findings thus indicate that the experimental rotary tiller attached to the crawler tractor provided high pulverization and that this combination can be expected to successfully perform pasture renovation for the remediation of grass.


Vol. 51 (2016), No. 2

Released: February 07, 2017

  • Original Paper
  • Effectiveness of four electric fences for preventing Sika deer entry into meadows
    Hideharu Tsukada, Keisuke Ishikawa, Tamaki Kida, Norihiro Shimizu, Masahiko Takeuchi, Yuko Fukue, Masato Minami, Yoshio Nakamura, Yasuko Hanafusa, Michiru Fukasawa, Tetsuo Suyama
    Abstract: The effectiveness of four electric fences (4-polywire and 5-polywire fencing, high-tensile wire fencing, and woven polywire mesh fencing) designed to deter Sika deer from entering into meadows was assessed. Frequencies of deer entry into meadows observed using remote cameras were significantly lower in meadows with electric fences than in the meadow with no electric fence. The woven polywire mesh and high-tensile wire fencing exhibited particularly better exclusion of Sika deer than 4-polywire and 5-polywire fencing. The effect of the woven polywire mesh fencing lasted for more than 4 years. These fences are sufficiently strong to withstand pressure from deer. Moreover, in the case of high-tensile wire fencing, an outrigger wire position and its configuration was suitable for giving aversive stimuli to deer touching the fence. Considering the cost performance of its long term use, the installation of durable high-tensile electric fencing equipped with a top wire at more than 140 cm height and with the outrigger wire at 45 cm height is recommended for preventing Sika deer incursions into meadows.
  • Research Paper
  • Shoot growth and fruit productivity of 'Masui Dauphine' Fig (Ficus carica L.) Having High Limb Position with Horizontal Bearing Shoots and Renewal Long Pruning
    Akihiro Hosomi, Takeshi Isobe, Yuka Miwa
    Abstract: Optimal positioning and pruning of bearing shoots were investigated in the ’Masui Dauphine’ fig trees, having high limb straight-line (HLSL) training (Hosomi et al., 2013). In a comparison of bearing shoot positions between horizontal and downward, thicker bearing shoots with more lateral shoots were observed in the horizontal position. Fruits that ripened earlier, were larger, or had greater color with higher soluble solids content (SSC) , were obtained from some nodes of bearing shoots in the horizontal position. Furthermore the growth and fruit production of the trees of (a) HLSL with renewal long pruning (Hosomi et al., 2015) , were compared against trees having (b) conventional low limb straight-line style training with short pruning. No clear difference between (a) and (b) was observed in the size of bearing shoots, the abundance of lateral shoots, the number of fruit set, or the estimated yield, but these were difference in the qualities of the fruits. In 2009, larger fruits at the 3rd nodes of bearing shoots and less colored fruits at the 18th nodes were obtained from trees in category (a) with downward bearing shoot position than from trees (b). In 2010, larger fruits with higher SSC at the 3rd and 8th nodes, and greater fruit color at the 3rd and 13th nodes were obtained from trees in category (a) with horizontal bearing shoot position than from trees (b). To summarize these results, the horizontal position is better for the bearing shoot of HLSL trees, because the quality of some fruits is greater than with downward positioning. Furthermore a high quality fruits of the ‘Masui Dauphine’ fig were obtained from HLSL trees combining the horizontal bearing shoot positioning and the renewal long pruning.
    Effects of Water Table Control on Growth of Spring- and Summer-sowing Carrot
    Kentaro Matsuo, Takehiko Yamamoto, Atsushi Yamasaki
    Abstract: The effects of water table control on the growth of spring- and summer-sown carrots were evaluated in a field with andosol soil. Carrot cultivars, 'Koyo-2-gou' for spring-sowing and 'Hamabeni-5-sun' for summer-sowing, were grown on ridges of width 70 cm and height 12 cm. Treatments of water table control were as follows: (1) maintained at 15 cm below the ridge surface until seedling emergence (i.e. USE15) and (2) maintained at 42 cm below the surface after USE15 (i.e. M42) , (3) maintained at 52 cm below the surface after USE15 (i.e. M52) , (4) maintained at 52 cm below the surface for one month after USE15 (i.e. M52M) and (5) not controlled (Control). The seedling emergence rate was higher for treatments with the water table controlled than for the Control. At the five-leaf stage, the growth of Control and USE15 were less than for M42 and M52 treatments. For spring-sowing, the root weight at harvest time was higher for M52 than the Control treatments. Furthermore, when there was heavy rainfall, the incidence of root cracking was lower for M52 than the other treatments because of much less fluctuation in soil moisture for M52. Even when the water table was controlled, the root form was long and thin when the temperature in the later growth stage was high, as the root form depends on temperature. For summer-sowing, the treatment of water table that were maintained at 52 cm depth were discontinued when it rained after about one month passed since the treatment was started; however, any further rain after this time did not result in injury from excess-moisture and root weight was increased. The incidence of root cracking was low even for treatments in which the water table was temporarily controlled.


Vol. 51 (2016), No. 1

Released: October 25, 2016

  • Original Paper
  • Pseudostem Length as an Indicator of the Start of Internode Elongation in Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars
    Masahiko Tanio, Kunio Tateishi, Kou Nakazono, Kazuhiro Watanabe
    Abstract: To develop an indicator of the start of internode elongation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the warmer regions of Japan, we analyzed the relationships between apical development stage, stem length, and pseudostem length (from the ground to the lamina joint of the uppermost unfolded leaf) in five spring and winter cultivars in the warmer Tokai region of Japan. The time course of apical development differed among cultivars: the winter cultivars reached the double ridges stage (the transition from vegetative to reproductive development) and the following floret differentiation stage later than the spring cultivars in early sowing. Apical development stage was closely related to both stem length and pseudostem length. Internode elongation started at the floret differentiation stage in all cultivars, when the pseudostem length was ca. 5 cm in all cultivars. The present study indicated that pseudostem length is useful as an indicator of the start of internode elongation in wheat cultivation in the warmer regions of Japan.
  • Research Paper
  • Effects of a Newly Developed Hole-Maker on the Efficiency of Planting Asparagus
    Tasuku Shimizu, Kuninori Matsunaga, Atsuko Uragami, Kazuki Tsuge, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Satoru Motoki
    Abstract: We have developed a new hole-maker to plant plug seedlings (grown in cell tray) directly in fields instead of larger pots. In the present study on the forcing cultivation of asparagus, a survey was conducted to examine increases in the efficiency of planting plug seedlings directly in fields using the above-mentioned hole-maker (new method), when compared to the efficiency of planting pot seedlings using a conventional hole-maker (conventional method), and assess the growth amount- an index of the yield. The time required for both inexperienced and experienced growers to plant asparagus using the new method was significantly shorter than that based on the conventional method. Postures during planting were also assessed using an OWAS method based on the frequency and rate of action categories (AC), and the level of improvement in the postures of experienced growers while planting asparagus using the new method was significantly higher compared to when the conventional method was adopted. While there was no increase in the frequency of AC when asparagus was planted by inexperienced growers, there was an increase in the number of AC. A shorter time was required to plant asparagus, which suggests that the burden of planting using the new method on inexperienced growers is less than that when the conventional method is used. Although the plug seedlings used for the new method were smaller than the pot seedlings used for the conventional method, there were no significant differences in the growth amount of root stock between the two methods in autumn. Therefore, the same asparagus yield can be obtained using the new method and conventional method.
    The Influence of Plowing-in Time of Sorghum Green Manure on Cabbage Growth and Yield at Cool Altitudes
    Kou Hatakenaka, Mayuko Okabe, Shigemitsu Kasuga
    Abstract: Soil enrichment methods are needed because of damage caused by continuous cropping on the Nobeyama plateau. Sorghum green manure is useful from the perspectives of soil improvement and the short cultivation period. We considered a suitable plowing-in time on using sorghum green manure in highlands from the viewpoints of the working efficiency, amount of sorghum when plowing-in, degree of decomposition, and the yield of succeeding cabbage crops. The experiment was carried out in three plots with different plowing-in times of sorghum. The sorghum variety ‘TSUCHITARO’ was seeded on June 7, 2010. The plowing-in times were the 46th day, 78th day, and 122nd day after seeding. On the 78th and 122nd days, the working efficiency on plowing-in was inefficient. Furthermore, mulching of the field was troublesome on the 122nd day. The sorghum dry weight per unit area was lightest on the 46th day, and there were no significant differences between the 78th and 122nd days. However, the decomposition rate of the 122nd day’s plowing sorghum was slower than the 78th day’s. The 122nd day’s sorghum dry-matter percentage was higher than the 78th day’s. The yield of succeeding cabbage crops was the highest on the 46th day’s plowing in all cropping seasons. On the 78th day’s plowing, growing delay occurred in cropping seasons using the cabbage cultivar “SINSHU868”, but the average cabbage weight reached the shipping standard. On the other hand, the average cabbage weight for the shipping standard wasn’t reached in the cropping seasons using “TERUYOSI”; therefore, the growth delay was more marked. On the 122nd day’s plowing, the average cabbage weight for the shipping standard wasn’t reached in all cropping seasons because of delayed enlargement in head formation. From these results, 46 days after seeding was more suitable as a plowing-in time than at 78 and 122 days.


Vol. 50 (2015), No. 4

Released: June 1, 2016

  • Original Paper
  • Improvement of Workability of Machine Planting with a Simplified Planting Machine for Allium × wakegi Araki Bulbs
    Takeyoshi Kawaguchi, Hideki Minamida, Yasunobu Kawamoto, Ayaka Satou, Yukio Ozaki
    Abstract: Planting of Allium × wakegi Araki bulbs is physically strenuous because it is performed manually with a squatting position. Therefore, we have developed a simplified planting machine that can be used for planting Allium × wakegi Araki bulbs and a planting method. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of using this planting machine for the cultivation on subjective exercise intensity, work time, work position of laborers, and the subsequent plant growth. In order to improve the working posture during the use of the developed system, the working posture was evaluated using the OWAS method; the results demonstrated that in 90% of the control group, postures need consideration in the near future (AC3), while more than 90% of the treatment group showed normal postures which do not need any special attention, except in some special cases (AC1) and postures must be considered during the next regular check of working methods (AC2). Furthermore, the subjective exercise intensity at the end of the work during subjective evaluation was based on the modified Borg Scale; complaints of the lower back was 5.7-7.7, thigh was 3.3-8.8, and knee was 1.3-5.7 in the control group, complaints of the thigh was 0.7, knee was 0.3, and calf was 1.0 in the treatment group. The work time during planting was reduced significantly; however, a decrease in the entire working duration, including the preparation, was not observed. A countermeasure was considered that might improve the efficiency of loading the bulbs into the connected paper pot that occupies 59-83% of the total. The sprouting and rooting days and the growth and yield obtained using the planting machine were comparable to the bulbs that were manually planted.
  • Research Paper
  • Permeability Reduction Caused by Surface Compaction in Large Dry Paddy Fields under Direct-seeding Rice Cultivation
    Hideaki Kanmuri, Ryuji Otani, Hiroyuki Sekiya, Souichi Nakayama, Hidefumi Saito
    Abstract: Experiments assessing direct-seeding rice cultivation using plowing and compaction were conducted in large Muck soil paddy fields (soil texture of plow lyre: lite clay) of 3 ha scale to establish a method of reducing paddy field water requirements of rice-cultivation methods using compaction. A laboratory compaction experiment based on the soil hardness index clarified the soil hardness necessary to reduce the water requirement. Results show that saturated hydraulic conductivity decreased to 2.3×10-5 cm s-1 by compacting soil to 20 mm of soil hardness with more than 34% soil water content. After four repetitions of whole field surface compaction using a Cambridge-roller in the field experiment, the soil hardness at 5 cm under the field surface increased to about 20 mm, as measured using a soil hardness meter. Results show that saturated hydraulic conductivity at 5 cm under the field surface decreased to the targeted level of 2.3×10-5 cm s-1. The water requirement in experiment fields compacted with the Cambridge-roller decreased to about 10 mm d-1, which is lower than our targeted value of 20 mm d-1. Investigation of the water level at the paddy surface and in the subsurface drain pipe revealed that the paddy surface water level in compacted paddy field was maintained by the compacted soil layer at 5 cm depth under the field surface because of a discontinuity of water levels between the paddy surface and the subsurface drain pipe. Results show that field surface compaction with index value of soil hardness reduces the water requirements of a large paddy field.
    Use of potted seedlings for reducing damage by rice water weevil in transplanted rice plants
    Takashi Motobayashi, Minoru Yoshida, Humiya Yamaguchi, koji Matsukawa
    Abstract: Rice cultivation using potted-seedlings is practiced mainly in cold regions. The technique limits plant injury during to transplanting and promotes tillering ability, which may in turn reduce damage to rice plant roots by the rice water weevil (RWW) early in the growing season. We assessed the effect of RWW infestation on the growth and yield of rice by releasing RWW adults on rice plants cultivated from potted and conventionally grown seedlings in the field and in pots. In the field experiments, the tiller number of rice plants exposed to RWW tended to be lower than in control rice plants grown from potted and conventional seedlings during the early growing season (40 to 50 days after transplantation (DAT) ). In addition, the tiller number of rice plants cultivated from potted seedlings tended to be higher than the tiller number of plants cultivated from conventional seedlings. In the pot experiments, above-ground dry biomass, root dry biomass, and exudation rate tended to decrease after RWW infestation in rice plants cultivated from potted and conventional seedlings. However, these parameters tended to be higher in rice plants cultivated from potted seedlings than from plants cultivated from conventional seedlings. The findings suggested that using potted seedlings reduces the potential for damage by RWW during the early growing season. However, since the tiller number of many of the rice plants damaged by RWW had recovered by the heading stage in the field, the benefits of using potted-seedlings to minimize RWW damage early in the growing season is not reflected in improved rice yield.


Vol. 50 (2015), No. 3

Released: March 1, 2016

  • Research Paper
  • Evaluation of Detachabilities of Calyx and Fruit Stalk by Using Tension Test in Cherry and Medium-Sized Tomato
    Yoko HIGUCHI, Reiko HOJO, Kazuki TSUGE, Naoshi KAKIO, Takuya FUJIO, Hiromi IKEURA, Satoru MOTOKI
    Abstract: Cluster harvest of tomato leads to labor saving and provides high commercial value. Attaching of matured fruits to fruit stalks is important trait in cluster harvest and marketing. This trait is affected by the detachabilities of calyx and fruit stalk in tomatoes. Adhesive power was measured as an indicator of detachabilities of calyx and fruit stalk by using tension test. The detachabilities of calyx and fruit stalk were evaluated in fresh marketable tomatoes in the present examination, using newly developed and existing tools and small desktop test devices (EZ-SX). The study also examined the usability of the test devices. Five varieties of fresh marketable tomato that had just been harvested were used in the study, and their detachabilities of calyx and fruit stalk were assessed to examine differences in the adhesive power of the calyx and fruit stalk among the different varieties, as well as their relationships with the traits of tomatoes. There were differences in the adhesive power of the calyx and fruit stalk, diameters and areas of calyx marks, and fruit stalk among the different varieties. According to the results of this study, differences in the detachabilities of calyx and fruit stalk among the different varieties can be assessed using newly developed and existing tools and small desktop test devices. The usability of the test devices for the selection of varieties suited for harvesting in clusters and their cultivation has also been established.
    Possibility of Sawdust Use as Hot Bed Medium in Asparagus Rootstock Forcing Culture
    Tatsuru JISHI, Hiroshi GORAI, Takahiro SONODA, Hajime ARAKI
    Abstract: In order to improve the system of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) rootstock planting in forcing culture, sawdust was tested as a light substrate medium for a hot culture bed. The spear yield in a sawdust plot (in which only sawdust was used as the hot bed medium) tended to be lower than that of a conventional plot using only soil. A combination plot using sawdust and soil (in which sawdust and soil were used as the medium under and over the rhizomes of the rootstock, respectively) showed a similar yield to that of the conventional plot using only soil, and also shortened the required time to remove the medium and rootstocks from hot bed after forcing cultivation. Therefore, the combined medium of sawdust and soil for the hot culture bed is thought to lead to a labor-saving effect on farm work for removing the hot bed without yield reduction.


Vol. 50 (2015), No. 2

Released: January 28, 2016

  • Original Paper
  • Development of the Planting Machine for Allium×wakegi Araki Bulbs and Evaluation of the Accuracy of Machine Planting
    Takeyoshi KAWAGUCHI, Hideki MINAMIDA, Yasunobu KAWAMOTO, Ayaka SATOU, Yukio OZAKI
    Abstract: The planting of Allium×wakegi Araki bulbs is physically strenuous because it is performed manually in a squatting position. Therefore, a reduction in labor effort and an improvement in planting efficiency are needed.To address this demand, a new bulb planting machine has been developed. The new model has been downsized, and is lightweight in comparison to an existing machine. Structural improvements and the development of a new planting mechanism have been made to the existing model.The main features of the new machine are as follows. A constant planting depth is realized by using a "soil leveling plate," which has been newly developed on the stand of the seedling or planting unit. No bulbs fall out from the connected paper pot and were caught in the machinery, which has been achieved by making the step on the machine smaller and by changing the structure of the "seedling guide plate." The new machine can be used to plant bulbs on the bottom of ditches, which is a local planting method. This has been made possible by narrowing the "planting unit" and attaching newly developed accessory parts. The accuracy of bulb planting by the new machine has been evaluated. The precision of planting depth has been significantly increased. In addition, none of the bulbs fell from the connected paper pot and became caught in the machine.These results indicate that this new machine is of practical use.


Vol. 50 (2015), No. 1

Released: October 24, 2015

  • Research Paper
  • Influence of Mechanical Weeding after Rice Bran Treatment of the Soil Surface on the Growth and Yield of Paddy-rice Cultivated without Herbicides
    Joe NAKAI, Satoshi TORITSUKA, Masahiko KAWAMURA
    Abstract: In this study, we examined the effects of mechanical weeding after rice bran application on the growth and yield of paddy rice cultivated without the use of herbicides from 2006 to 2007. In a paddy field and a rotational paddy field after soybean cultivation, the effects of either with or without rice bran application and either with or without mechanical weeding were tested by dividing the experimental field into four blocks. Rice bran application was highly effective in suppressing Lindernia spp., Monochoria vaginalis, Cyperus difformis and Eleocharis acicularis. Mechanical weeding after the application of rice bran not only enhanced weed suppression but also increased nitrogen uptake by the rice plants during panicle formation compared to rice bran application alone. As a result, the number of spikelets per unit area increased, thereby increasing rice yield. In the second year (2006) after soybean cultivation, rice yield increased in a rotational paddy field when compared to a paddy field but yield did not increase in the third year.
    Analysis of Accidents on Head-feeding combine harvesters with Questionnaire Survey for Japanese Farmers
    Muneki TOMITA, Tomomichi MIZUKAMI, Shigeyoshi TSUKAMOTO
    Abstract: To identify potential safety improvements to combine harvesters, the present study analyzes survey data regarding accidents involving combines. A questionnaire survey was completed by 902 Japanese farmers who had been involved in combine harvester accidents; the respondents were from 23 different prefectures. The questionnaire included items such as degree of injury, cause of accident, and machinery operation conditions. The survey results found 257 accidents, including 134 injuries and two fatalities. The data include specific accident causes for 242 cases. According to the results, 65% of combine accidents were caused by contact with processing parts such as the cutter, feeding chain, or conveyer belt, while 29% were caused by the combine rolling over. In the former cases, 60% of victims were seriously injured and either visited or were admitted to a hospital; roughly 2/3 of these serious cases stemmed, at least in part, from a deliberate deviation from safe operating procedures. Both fatalities reported were caused by combines rolling over, but no one was injured in 80% of the rolling accidents reported. The most common occurrences of combines rolling over included combines rolling off transport trailers or rolling off gangways connected to truck platforms. More accidents occurred while transporting combines than during operation. These results suggest that equipment improvements to harvester combines that prohibit deliberate deviations from safety procedures as well as improvements to avoid machinery rolling over are required.
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